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  • The general distribution of seaweeds along the east and west coasts of India, Lakshadweep and Andaman-Nicobsr islands is given. The standing crop of seaweeds in all these areas is estimated as more than 1,00,000 tons (wet wt.). The quantity of seaweeds growing in the shallow water areas (0 to 4.0 m depth) of southwest coast of Tamil Nadu was estimated as 22,000 tons (wet wt.) in an area of 17,125 ha and from deep waters (5.0 to 22.0 m depth) was 75,372 tons (wet wt.) from an area of 1,863 sq.km. Monthly data were collected during the four years 1989,1990,1992 and 1993 from different seaweed ,landing Centres in Tamil Nadu coast on the quantity of seaweeds harvested from the natural seaweed beds.

    Author(s): Kalimuthu, S, Kaliaperumal, N
  • Agar is produced on commercial scale from August, 1999 onwards in the Agar Plant at Re,gional Centre of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Mandapam C;unp using the red seaweed Graci/aria edulis (Kanji Pasi) as raw material. Agar is manufactured in sheet fonn by washing the dried seaweed in the ~gitator tank, treating with Hc1, cooking in the digester by passing steam, collecting the agar gel in aluminium trays, freezing the gel in freezing unit, thawing, bleaching and sun-drying of agar sheets. The yield of agar is found to be 6 to 8%. The gel strength, gelling and melting temperature of 1.5% agar ranged from 74 to 122 gicm', 44 to 46"C and 95 to 97"C respectively. The bleacbed agar sheets are marketed by packing them in polythene bags. The methods for improving the yield and quality of agar are suggested.

    Author(s): Kaliaperumal, N, Uthirasivan, P
  • Carrageenan is one of the commercially important water soluble polysaccharides extracted from certain red algae and it is widely utilised in foods, dairy products and pharmaceuticals. In India, there is no carrageenan manufacturing unit and knowledge on the processing technologies of this phytochemical is very limited. Various methods available for the extraction of different types of carrageenan are reviewed in this paper.

    Author(s): Ramalingam, J R, Kaliaperumal, N, Kalimuthu, S
  • The seaweeds are the only source for agar and algin. They are also used as food material, livestock feed and fertilizer in many parts of the world. The various products obtained from Indian seaweeds and their uses are dealt with here.

    Author(s): V. S. K. Chennubhotla, N. Kaliaperumal, S. Kalimuthu
  • Kelp forests and Sargassum beds not only are commercially important in themselves but also play an important role in spawning, breeding and feeding grounds for many kind of fish, shellfish, lobster and other important fisheries resources (Komatsu et al. 1982; Komatsu 1985; Ohno et al. 1990; Watanuki and Yamamoto 1990; Terawaki et al. 1998). The distributions of kelp forests comprising of the Ecklonia and Eisenia species are restricted to warm-water regions. A number of ecological studies on these plants have been undertaken with particular attention focused the re-establishment of kelp forests. This is due to declining populations that are a result of various factors, including human activities (Tsutsui et al. 1996). Thus, there has been development of construction techniques of artificial foundation, for kelp forests, and transplanting techniques of seed and adult marine algae, on artificial foundations (Hasegawa et al. 1995). Techniques of formation for seaweed bed may fall under either of the following classifications: 1. Spore dispersal technique; 2. The spore bag technique; 3. Ropeseeding technique; 4. Adult-plant transplantation method; 5. Concrete blocks; 6. The threading technique; 7. Gravel-bag technique; and 8. Transplantation of young plants (Largo and Ohno 1993). In this study, we used the spore bag on the roof of an artificial iron reef and a natural rock for a seaweed bed. The present paper describes the formation of seaweed beds by the spore bag method on an artificial iron reef and a natural rock (habitat).

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  • A PDF on SINTEF's "Conversion of Seaweed to Biofuels - Potential and Challenges" Power Point.

    Author(s): Olaf T. Berglihn, Inga M. Aasen, Bernd Wittgens
  • The community organization of coral reef fishes in the seagrass sub-habitat of Kavaratti toll, Lakshadweep, India was studied during the period from January 1991 to June 1992. Twenty-seven families represented by 65 species were recorded by the visual censes method. The community diversity for families and species was 2.49 and 3.14 respectively. Juveniles and sub-adults of the most adult reef fish, which inhabit other sub-habitats, were recorded here. The high species diversity in the seagrass beds is due to their roles as nurseries, shelter and foraging grounds for many species.

    Labridae, Chaetodontidae, Acanthuridae and Mullidae were the most speciose families. Ocurrence of siganids was highly seasonal. The cover that seagrass canopy provides conceals many species and perhaps influenced counts. The occurrence of balistids could be related to the presence of interstitial and patches and abundant invertebrate food. Scorpaenids subsisted on abundant invertebrates and juveniles fishes. High counts and pronounced variations make seagrass beds unstable habitats. However, monsoon assemblages were relatively stable perhaps due to lack of excessive new recruits and a habitat shift by most species.

    Author(s): Vijay Anand, P E, Pillai, N G K
  • The trade/lobbying group Cornucopia Institute has issued a ‘report’ that alleges a ‘smoking gun’ in carrageenan data published more than 10 years ago on an industry-supported website. The Cornucopia report was issued just as the National Organic Standards Board (NOSB) is conducting ‘sunset reviews’ of additives that may or may not be included in U.S. foods labeled as organic. The announcement of the report and the full-length report itself is fraught with anti-industry bias and fails even to accurately describe its research subject. The Cornucopia report is consistent with the group’s ideology and baseless attacks on carrageenan. Cornucopia believes in three central themes that are evident in all its carrageenan discussions: 1. If you cannot argue decades of peer-reviewed science, then argue the research funding. 2. If you cannot argue the truth, then allege conspiracy. 3. If all else fails, cherry-pick the data.

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  • A PDF on "CPI - Assets and Activities Relating to Seaweed".

    Author(s): Dr. Jerry Cooper
  • To make a preliminary identification of the gracilarioid plant attached to cultivation ropes of Undaria pinnatifida and establish a method of cultivating this plant, the first taxonomic and cultivation studies on this species in Korea were conducted. This gracilarioid plant was identified from its morphological and anatomical features, as Gracilaria chorda. Growth tests using the 10, 20, and 30 cm cuttings of axes of G. chorda were performed twice, from May 3 to August 21, 2002 and from December 15, 2002 to April 3, 2003 in Ihoijin aquafarm, Hoijin, Jangheung, Jeollanamdo, Korea. In the first growing test, the thallus length of the 10, 20, and 30 cm cuttings increased twelve-fold, ten-fold, and seven-fold; the wet weight increased 81-fold, 60-fold, and 41-fold; the numbers of more than 10 cm-long branches increased 3.8-fold, 5.2-fold, and 6.1-fold, respectively. In the second growth test, the thallus length of the 10, 20, and 30 cm cuttings increased seven-fold, 5.5-fold, and four-fold; the wet weight increased 81-fold, 53-fold and 36-fold; the number of branches increased 3.8-fold, 7.3-fold, and 6.6-fold, respectively. The cultivation of G. chorda by vegetative regeneration using cuttings of thallus axes was successful for the first time in Korea.

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