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  • Measuring the greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of biof uels has become increasingly important in recent years. Studies have shown a significant amount of variation in biofuels made from different feedstocks. In some cases, biofuels are only marginally better than fossil fuel counterparts. In other cases, there are significant improvements in GHG performance.

    Author(s): Jim Lane, Dustin Mulvaney
  • Partnership aims for fuels, chemicals & coproducts from brown seaweed.

    Author(s): Bio Architecture Lab
  • The incorporation of algae into aquafeed has come in and out of fashion over the past few decades so the aim of the session was to discuss all aspects of this growing and not well understood industry and to agree on four critical areas which will enhance improvement into the future.

    It became clear during the discussions of the vast differences on this subject between EU/West where majority is wild harvest and used as hydrocolloids whereas in Asia the majority is farmed and used for food/feed. The need to concentrate in this Think-Tank on Macro as against Micro was also established however there was a complete understanding that both were immensely important and commonalities can be found between the two. Compared to other types of aquaculture, the production of seaweed (macroalgae) is only surpassed by freshwater fishes and represents over 30 per cent of the world wide industry.

    Unicellular algae is a heterogeneous product; a mix of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. In unicellular algae there is much variation in composition between species/strains and the proportion of these can even be affected by the growing conditions. Algae (both macro and micro) are excellent sources of Vitamin A, Vitamin B, Folic Acid, Antioxidants and Carotenoids. Extracts from Seaweed, in a similar fashion to terrestrial plant extracts, have been shown to have a wide range of biological activities.

    The two major classes of molecules in seaweeds that have the most potential as functional food ingredients are polysaccharides and polyphenolics. Polyphenolics have proven antioxidant activity, and have been successfully incorporated into drinks and other food consumables. Seaweed polysaccharides are unique, abundant, and cost effectively isolated but need to be partially hydrolyzed for inclusion in various foods due to their gelling properties. Seaweed polysaccharides have been shown to have heparin-like anticoagulation activity, antiviral, immune-enhancing and anticancer activities, cholesterol lowering activity, lipid lowering effects, and blood pressure-lowering benefits amongst many other things.

    Author(s): David Peggs
  • The incorporation of algae into aquafeed has come in and out of fashion over the past few decades so the aim of the session was to discuss all aspects of this growing and not well understood industry and to agree on four critical areas which will enhance improvement into the future.

    It became clear during the discussions of the vast differences on this subject between EU/West where majority is wild harvest and used as hydrocolloids whereas in Asia the majority is farmed and used for food/feed.

    Author(s): David Peggs
  • Studies were made on protein, carbohydrate and lipid from 28 marine algae from Lakshadweep Islands. The protein content ranged from 0.1 to 18.9% in green algae, 4.6 to 12.2% brown algae and 2.7 to 13.1% in red algae. The carbohydrate content was from 0.5 to 15.846, 1.5 to 13.0% and 2.0 to 29.4% in gMn, brown and red algae respectively. The lipid content varied from 2.6 to 13.8% in green algae, 2.2 to 8.3% in brown algae and 3.1 to 8.3% in red algae

    Author(s): Kaliaperumal, N, Chennubhotla, V S Krishnamurthy, Najmuddin, M, Ramalingam, J R, Kalimuthu, S
  • The present paper deals with some important biochemical components such at proteins, carbohydrates and lipids of 33 marina algae, growing abundantly on the coast of Ramanathapuram District. The results indicated that the green algae (Chlorophyceae) has the maximum of protein content ranging from 6 to 25.8%, next in order comes the brown algae (Phaeophyceae) with13 to 16.6% followed by red algae (Rhodophyceae) with 1.5 to 8.8%. The range of carbohydrate content was from 0.3 to 11.6% in green algae, 3.3 to 24.9% in brown algae and 1.8 to 57.0% in red algae. The lipid content ranged from 0.6 to 8.6% in green algae, 0.6 to 3.7% in brown algae and 0.4 to 6.1% in red algae. The results of the study give an Insight into the biochemical content of the algal species studied could be used to decide their suitability for the formulation of feed to fishes in aquaculture and to other animals.

    Author(s): Chennubhotla, V S Krishnamurthy, Najmuddin, M, Ramalingam, J R, kaliaperumal, N
  • A PDF Power Point slide on "Bioconversion of Biofuel Resides into Aquatic Feed".

    Author(s): Saoharit Nitayvardhana, Rakshit Devappa, Samir K. Khanal
  • The Aquatic Feeds and Nutrition Department (AFN) of the Oceanic Institute hosted a workshop on the use and processing of biofuel co-products in feeds for fish, shrimp, urchin and shellfish. The continuing demand for alternative energy sources is driving innovative uses of plant products as feedstock for biofuels. This means that an array of new co-products are becoming available for potential use in aquafeeds.

    Author(s): Aquafeed.com Staff
  • Studies on the biological aspects of economically important Indian seaweeds are reviewed in this paper. These include the taxonomy and ecological studies at different localities along the Indian coast. The growth pattern, periods of maximum growth, fruiting seasons for plants such as Cystoseira indica, Sargassum, Turbinaria, Gracilaria verrucosa and Gelidiella acerosa have been studied.

    Commercial harvesting is suggested during peak growth periods to obtain larger quantity of raw materials and better yield of finished products. Spore shedding and the period of maximum sporulation which vary from one seaweed to another has been studied by estimation of spore output and observations on the liberation of spores. Information is available on the germination of spores, survival rate of germlings, culture of germlings and life history studies.

     

    Author(s): V.S.K. Chennubhotla, N. Kaliaperumal, S. Kalimuthua, P.V.R. Nair
  • The brown seaweed Sargassum wightii Greville ex J. Agardh 1848 was collected from Pamban (south east coast of Tamilnadu, India; Latitude 9o18’N and Longitude 79o12’ E) and extracted with different solvents such as acetone, ethanol, benzene and chloroform in a soxhlet apparatus. The antibacterial activity of the extracts were tested against natural pathogens isolated from housefly (Musca domestica Linnaeus 1758), such as Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli respectively. The extracts were also subjected to alpha amylase inhibitory, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities following standard protocols. Ethanol extract exerted high inhibitory effect on all the microbes and was assertive against B. cereus (14.2 mm). Potential and significant (p<0.05) alpha amylase inhibition was observed in the chloroform extract (81.24±8.063%). The benzene extract had significantly (p<0.05) higher antioxidant activity (74.44±3.27%) and the antiinflammatory activity was comparatively higher in the acetone extract (65.5±1.21%). However, the control drugs exhibited better activity than all the tested extracts. The qualitative phytochemistry showed the presence of flavonoids, pholobatannins, phenolic compounds, aromatic acids and xanthoproteins. The Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectrum contained eight major peaks which confirmed the presence of amino, keto, fluoro alkane group and aromatic compounds in the extracts which could be responsible for the bioactivity.

    Author(s):

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